·Deciduous Forest is in Koppen’s C climate category
·There are four distinct seasons
·Mild summers averaging about 70º F.
·Average temperatures in winter are below freezing
·The humidity level is at 60 percent and higher
Zoology Fact Sheet Deciduous Forest
· A wide variety of animals that include, animals, birds, reptiles, and insects
· Elk and bison are native to the deciduous forest biome
· Some mammals found in the deciduous forest are squirrels, wood mice, brown and black bears, skunks, raccoons, and quite a few others.
· Also the natural resident of this biome are bobcats, mountain lions, timber wolves, and coyotes.
· Unfortunately, quite a few animals in deciduous forests are under the threat of extinction and are therefore protected.
· The animals living in this biome adapt to these forests by either migrating or hibernating.
· Bears will hibernate while some birds will migrate to warmer places where they can find food.
· Other animals, such as squirrels, will store food in the hollow of the trees during the summer months to save for winter time.
· Sadly for these animals, many of these forests are facing a threat to their existence because of deforestation.
·Not just this, but many animals in the deciduous forests are becoming extinct as they are being hunted down for their fur.
·During the winter in this biome, it is very difficult to survive due to the forest being frozen and freezing cold.
·In the fall, leaves fall off trees and leaves animals with less protection to hide themselves in from predators
Environmental Awareness Deciduous Forest
·Air pollutants from fossil fuels are destroying forests
·Millions of acres of forests have suffered from the burning of fossil fuels
·The Deciduous Forest has also suffered from Acid Rain
·Mining has also damaged the Deciduous Forests heavily
·Global Warming has had a huge impact on the Deciduous Forests. As temperature gradually increases, less and less precipitation falls. And less precipitation means less growth.
·The introduction to non-native species to the Deciduous Forest has severely destroyed the balance of the forest.
·Human occupation has decreased forests to tiny remnants of what they once were.
Fact Sheet Geography Deciduous Forest
Deciduous forests can be found in the eastern half of North America, and the middle of Europe. There are many deciduous forests in Asia.
Some of the major areas that they are in are southwest Russia, Japan, and eastern China.
South America has two exceptionally large areas of deciduous forests in southern Chile and Middle East coast of Paraguay.
There are deciduous forests located in New Zealand and southeastern Australia also.
The difference between the deciduous forest and any other forest is that the deciduous forest loses their leaves in the winter months before losing their leaves they will change colors.
DECIDUOUS FORESTS ROCK
Fact Sheet Botanist Deciduous Forest
Deciduous forests are located in temperate zone above the tropical forests and below the coniferous forests.In deciduous forests there are five different zones: The tree stratum zone, The small tree and sapling zone, the shrub zone, the herb zone, and the ground zone. In the deciduous forest, seasons are very distinct:In the fall, the leaves on the trees change color and in the winter they fall off.
Plants have adapted to the forest by growing towards the sun.They also get their nutrients from the soil in the ground, which is very fertile.Because the soil is so fertile, a lot of major agricultural regions are found in this biome.Nonetheless, it is this agricultural use that causes people to take advantage of deciduous forests and use them for their land, farms, homes, and towns.
American Beech: This tree grows in the southern and eastern part of the United States in deciduous forests all over Maine and Massachusetts. Most abundant in deep, rich, moist, and well-drained soils, the American Breech tree is a tall, wide tree with bark that is very smooth, pale, and gray. It produces a lot of paper, and it feeds many animals, including squirrels, rabbits, and foxes.
Carpet Moss: This type of moss grows in North America and Europe, and carpets the ground with it’s golden green color. Many people use carpet mosses as a ground cover in gardening, and in some cases it has even been used as the stuffing in a mattress.
Common Lime: This tree grows in deciduous forests in Europe and the United States. It is very tall, and it can live up to 500 years. It is known to have been used has a home remedy for colds, the flu, and other sicknesses, but it is also known to cause heart problems.
A desert is defined as a landscape, which receives less than the necessary precipitation to grow most plants and enable life.In order to be a desert, a region must receive less than 250mm (10in) of precipitation per year or lose more water through evapotranspiration than falls through precipitation.
There are three different kinds of deserts:
-Extremely Arid Lands – more than 12 consecutive months without rain
-Arid Lands – less than 250mm (10in) of rain per year.
-Semiarid Lands – between 250mm – 500mm (10in – 20in) of rain per year
Deserts take up about 20% of the Earth’s land surface. The surface of the desert itself is composed most often of sand and rocks. There can also be cold deserts, like Antarctica, where the precipitation – snow rather than rain – is smaller than the amount of ice that evaporates because of the katabatic winds.
The temperature in hot deserts can rise up to 115˚F or higher during the day and at night it can drop to 32˚F. This is caused by the lack of humidity and therefore clouds in the sky, which could keep the heat on the ground at night.
The only life in deserts are extremely resistible to heat and a lack of humidity like cacti or small reptiles. The animals that are able to sustain the heat are called xerocoles and the plants are called xerophytes. However, even if it seems like there is not much life in a desert, the biodiversity is enormous.
The bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material.
Many unique rock formations made up by the mountainous terrain surrounding the edges of some oceans being eroded by waves over many years.
The bodies of water surrounding Morocco are the Straight of Gibralter, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.
Ocean Climate Fact Sheet
-The temperature ranges from about 50° to 90°.
-The precipitation ranges from 1mm to 126mm
-There is usually at least one rain day per month and it reaches its highest at about ten rain days in a month per year.
-The wind speeds ranges from the mid 50s to the mid 90s (kph).
-The climate is suitable for farming.
Mediterranean Endangered Species
-Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii)- This bird has become an endangered species across the Mediterranean sea.
-European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla)- Endangered in the Mediterranean seas, Baltic sea, White sea, and the rivers of the North Atlantic
-Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus)- The Mediterranean monk seal is one of the rarest animals in the world. They were first endangered due to hunting for their skin in the 1800s.
Maquis- Maquis is a growth that grows onto thick brush and is very common in the region of Morocoo. The Brush consists of shrubs and longs brush. Trees suchas Olive Trees have lots of Maquis on them
African Daisy- The African Daisy is a beautiful flower with very vibrant colors. The plant ranges from very bright colors of pink and red to a vibrant orange. The flower is most commonly seen near the coast of Africa and in the Mediterranean area.
Eucalyptus Tree- Eucalyptus Trees stand very tall and have very soft leaves and feel almost like leather. The trees are very common in Morocco and give off a pleasant scent.
Bay Laurel- The Bay Laurel Tree is a tree that gives off flavorful leaves and good scent. These trees grow abundantly in Morocco and in regions with similar characteristics.
Rock Rose- Rock Rose shrubs produce very beautiful blossoms and give off pleasant scents. Rock Rose grows very well in Moroccan gardens and along the northern coast of Africa. The trees’ flowers attract many bees to pollinate them.
Emily Weisz Nicholas Lemonnier Jordan Riessen Gillian Murphy
The Tundra Botanist: Emily Weisz
1. Considering the extremely harsh conditions of the tundra biome, there are over 1,700 different plant species that grow here.
2. The plants in the tundra consist mostly of mosses, grasses, lichens, sedges, and shrubs.
3. About 400 types of flowers bloom in the growing season, which lasts just for 50-60 days.
4. Very few trees can grow in the brutal tundra.
5. In some parts of the tundra willows do grow, but only up to about 8 cm, or 3 inches, high.
6. Developing over thousands of years, most of the vegetation have adapted to the conditions in the tundra by growing in a dense mat of roots.
7. Being too dry and cold for vegetation to grow, the Antarctica tundra is mostly covered by large expanses of ice fields.
8. In some parts of the region, especially the Antarctic Peninsula, there are areas where there is rocky soil which can support vegetation.
9. The plant species that exist here are aquatic and terrestrial species of algae.
10. The two flowering species of plants, the Antarctic pearlwort and Antarctic hair grass can be found in the western and northern parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Zoologist: Gillian Murphy:
1. Even though there is not much biodiversity, with only about 48 species of land mammals occurring in the tundra biome, there are surprisingly large numbers of each species.
2. The tundra animals mainly are slightly modified forms of deer, bears, foxes, wolves, rodents, hares, and shrews.
3. In North America, there are large caribou herds, which are called reindeer in Eurasia, which feed on plants and lichens.
4. The predators of the tundra biome are polar bears, arctic foxes, and wolves. Some of the smaller mammals are lemmings and snowshoe rabbits.
6. Although there are not too many types of insects to be found in the tundra, however, tiny midges that bite, mosquitoes, deer flies, and black flies do occur, which can make the summers in the tundra quite miserable.
7. The mosquitoes that occur in the tundra prevent themselves from freezing by substituting the water in their bodies with glycerol, which acts like an anti-freeze.
8. The marshy regions of the tundra are where migratory birds like plovers, sandpipers, and harlequin flock to in the summers.
9. Due to it being isolated from other continents, the Antarctic tundra, in contrast with the Arctic tundra, is devoid of large mammal species.
10. Sea birds and sea mammals, such as penguins and seals, however, do occur in areas close to the shore, while small mammals like cats and rabbits have been introduced by humans on some of the sub-Antarctic islands.
Meterioroligist: Nick Lemonnier
1. The Arctic Tundra is considered to be the youngest biome in the world, having been formed 10,000 years ago.
2. Located in the latitudes 55 degrees to 70 degrees north, this vast and treeless territory covers approximately 20 percent of the surface of the Earth, encompassing the North Pole.
3. Of all the biomes in the world, the tundra is considered to be the coldest.
4. With less than 10 inches of rain in a year, it is also the driest.
5. The main seasons of the tundra region are winter and a short summer.
6. The summers in the tundra sometimes last just for 6-10 weeks, while the winters are long.
7. Spring and fall are just brief interludes that occur between the winter and summer. In the winter, the nights can go on for weeks, with the sun barely rising, and the temperature often plummeting as low a -94 degrees F.
8. Due to the Arctic tundra being as close as it is to the North Pole, the days in the summer are 24 hours long, which is the reason the Arctic is also referred to as the ‘Land of the Midnight Sun’.
9. The temperature in the summer rarely rises above 50 degrees F, which is just sufficient enough to thaw the top layer of the ground, which is referred to as permafrost.
10. The permafrost, which lies about six inches below the surface, remains frozen throughout the year.